The Proposal for Future
You can see what we have been learning, the ideal model of a shelter and the solution of the problems.
Ideal Shelter Model
Based on what we have stated, we considered an ideal shelter for women.
Please click when you want to see the ideal shelter model.
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Please click when you want to see the way of separating living spaces.
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The first important thing is for women to participate in shelter administration. If there are no women in the shelter leaders, women's perspectives will not be considered, and the social position of women will become weaker and weaker. It may take courage to be a leader alone, but it will be easier to run if you invite your friends. We highly recommend that women involved in the administration and management of shelters. In addition, it is important to implement initiatives to prevent fixed gender-based roles. In shelters, only women are in charge of jobs similar to household chores, such as cooking, and often have to do it for free, which makes the burden on women heavy. Therefore, both men and women should be in charge of cooking.
Here for our ideal shelter model, we assumed that about 180 people were evacuated to a school gymnasium of 1500 square meters. Because space to store drinking water and food for evacuees and a distribution place for supplies are necessary, 901.5 square meters is secured in other than living spaces of a shelter. The school building is not able to be used from damage caused by the disaster. We assumed that only one week has passed since the disaster occurred, and electricity, water, and gas have not yet been restored.
It is also necessary to conclude an agreement with a remote local government, assuming that more evacuees than they expect will come. In fact, in November 2015, Edogawa Ward signed an agreement with Shirosato Town, Ibaraki Prefecture, in order to give priority to the elderly and the handicapped who have difficulty living in long evacuation lives.
The space per person is set to 3.5 square meters by the Sphere Standard in principle. However, taking the difference in physical constitution between children and adults into account, we define the space per child as follows.
Children aged zero to two: 0 square meter
Children aged three to five: 1.75 square meters
Children of six and above: 3.5 square meters
By setting up multipurpose spaces for both men and women, we devise it to utilize limited shelter spaces efficiently. The multipurpose space for women is divided into three spaces: space for changing clothes, space for nursing and space for putting on makeup. Each space is separated by a partition, and women can nurse, change clothes, and put on makeup without worrying about the eyes around them. In addition, the partition is movable to be able to change the size of each space according to the condition of congestion. Some people may feel that doing makeup is a luxury in a shelter. However, according to Tsuneyuki Abe of Tohoku University and Ruriko Takano of Shiseido Beauty Creation Research Center, by putting on makeup, women’s hormones of the number of the immune system was increasing and women’s stress hormones was reducing. In addition, many women have a lot of stress when they show their face without doing makeup to others, so we set up a space for putting on makeup.
Because the water is being cut off, evacuees use the restrooms in the gymnasium by installing portable toilets. However, since the number of restrooms in the gymnasium is not enough, in our model, we set up temporary restrooms in the schoolyard. Based on the Sphere Standard, the ratio of women's restrooms to men's restrooms is 3:1 to reduce congestion in women's restrooms. In addition, because there is not necessarily a multipurpose restroom in the gymnasium, we install a temporary restroom that can be used as a multipurpose restroom in the schoolyard. By setting up a counselling room and placing women counselors near women’s restrooms, we devise it so that a woman become easy to talk about a woman special problem. We also post a consultation desk for anxiety, worries, violence against women, etc. and the information about counselors in the counselling room on the message board.
In addition to distributing supplies for women by women, the distribution space is separated from the men's living space so that they can receive the supplies without worrying about the men’s looks. Considering the ease of receiving supplies and going to the restroom, we set up a large number of passages.
In October 2019, the Office of Gender Equality of the Cabinet Office notified prefectures of "Disaster Response from the Viewpoint of Gender Equality in Typhoon No. 19 (Request)", including the establishment of a large number of women's restrooms, the preparation of consultation systems, the dissemination of the consultation desks, and the distribution supplies for women by woman.
We install lights that glow with batteries and photovoltaic cells in the tent in the schoolyard so that women can spend time in peace even if it is dark outside.
If it is difficult to prepare another room in the changing room or nursing room, it is a good idea to devise a way to ensure privacy by setting up a tent in the shelter. In fact, according to the Tokyo Shimbun, October 19, 2019 the evening edition, in areas affected by Typhoon No. 19, there was a shelter that used tents as women’s space for nursing and changing clothes.
In addition, women gathered in the place that is not seen from the doorways and in our model, women can spend their time in the environment that is less likely to encounter damage of the sex violence and live in peace.
We show you what is good to be secured in each space of the shelter below.
- ・Opinion box
- ・A change of clothes
- ・A change of underwear
- ・Work gloves
- ・Face mask
- ・Baby wipes
- ・Eye mask
- ・Application form for reservation of consultation room
It is good for evacuees to take them from a shelf etc. freely.
For women's restrooms, the following things are also required.
- ・Sanitary waste receptacle
- ・Supplies for women
- ・A change of clothes
- ・A change of underwear
- ・Rinse‐containing‐type shampoo
- ・Cleansing foam
In addition, it is a good idea to prepare makeup removers for women's shower room and shavers for men’s shower room.
- ・Gas stove
- ・Cling film
- ・Paper plate
- ・dispensable chopstick
- ・Plastic spoon
If there are other rooms that can be used and the school building is in a safe state, it is desirable to set up the following rooms.
- ・Nursing room
- ・Clothes drying place for Women
- ・Children's Room
- ・The room of the person needing support
- ・Cooking space
- ・The room of the infant and its parents
- ・Consultation room
- ・The room where people can spend time with their pets
In order to make a safe shelter for women, understanding and cooperation of men is essential. Considering the difference in the physical constitution of men and women, we increase the amount of food which is distributed so that men do not complain about facilities of the shelter that are regarded consideration for women as very important.
It is important for each person to have enough space and feel less stressed.