To Solve Issues
Shelter from the questionnaire
We conducted a questionnaire survey about the recognition of the current situation of shelters, 227 students at Ochanomizu University Senior High School answered our questions.
Survey method: Distribution of questionnaires
Survey period: November 11-12, 2019
Target: 227 women (the first- and second-year students of Ochanomizu University Senior High School)
Survey items: See below
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The image of the shelter is "narrow cramped" and "privacy is not protected"!
The result is that “It is narrow and cramped (27%, number of responses 126)", "Privacy is not protected (14%, number of responses 67)", "It is inconvenient (10%, number of responses 45)" and "It is unsanitary (10%, 43 responses)." There was a strong negative image for shelters.
To come to mind to hear that people who become the weak in shelters, the elderly and the handicapped!
We asked freely what kind of people would be vulnerable in shelters, and the answers that were "the elderly" (26%, 142 responses) and "the handicapped" (17%, 96 responses) were noticeable. On the other hand, there were free descriptions of "young children and mothers" (12%, 64 responses), "women" (8%, 42 responses), and "pregnant women" (7%, 38 responses), so some people were aware that women were in a weak position.
The majority of people think that gender-specific consideration in a shelter is necessary!
From the graph, because all respondents are young women, many students think that gender-specific consideration is "necessary" (76%, 172 responses), while 15% (35 responses) of the students think that “It is unavoidable even if it is not done,” and a few students think “It is not necessary.”
Consideration for women than those for men is more necessary in the shelter!
We asked two questions; "Do you think the consideration for men in a shelter is necessary?" and "Do you think care for women in a shelter is necessary?" The result was that students thought care for women is more necessary than those for men. Although we cannot ignore the fact that only women are surveyed, it is suggested that consideration for women is thought to be insufficient. We also asked about what kind of consideration is necessary.
|The TOP3 consideration that students think it is necessary in a shelter|
|For men||For women|
|No.1||Restrooms||Spaces for changing clothes|
|No.2||Spaces for changing clothes||Period|
|No.3||Spaces for men||Restrooms|
About consideration that students think it is necessary for men which was from a woman's point of views, and it did not reflect the opinions of men, but consideration for changing rooms and restrooms were on the top, and there was no big difference between consideration students think it is necessary for man and for women. For this reason, women at least think that the changing rooms and restrooms in shelters should be easy to use and safe.
Most people do not know that there is a case where supplies are not secured in the shelter!
About what you think is always secured in the shelter, we showed the following alternatives (multiple responses are possible). 1.food 2.water 3.toilets 4.partitions 5.bedding 6.baths 7.change of clothes 8.first aid supplies 9.sanitary goods 10.diapers 11.powdered milk
We found that many people think "water" and "food" are always secured. However, as mentioned above, there are not always supplies in shelters, so it is important to prepare them at home without relying on public assistance.
Next, we listened to the opinions of men and interviewed two men.
Survey method: Interview
Survey period: December 27 and 28, 2019
Interviewer: Tumu and Hoshi
Interviewees: 2 men in their 20s living in the Kanto region (A and B)
Survey items: See below
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Mr. A, who visited a shelter in Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture as a volunteer within a month of the Great East Japan Earthquake. He said, “In a shelter, many people are crowded in a small space, privacy is not guaranteed and we can hear other people's conversations well, and it was not a comfortable temperature." Mr. B has no experience of spending time in a shelter or working as a volunteer, but he has a similar image about shelters through classes of a university and news.
When we asked them what kind of people they thought would be vulnerable in a shelter, both of them listed the elderly. Mr. B regarded women as weak people in a shelter. Mr. A said that he did not feel the woman's position is so low because evacuees spent time with their family and he did not see a woman being evacuated alone in the shelter that he went to as a volunteer.
On the other hand, both of them said that gender-specific considerations in shelters were necessary. Opinions about the consideration of men were divided, and Mr. A answered that it was "not necessary". When we surveyed the students of Ochanomizu University Senior High School (girls’ high school), there were many students who cited "restrooms", " changing clothes" and "men-only spaces" as necessary consideration for men in a shelter. When we asked men, there was an opinion that Mr. A wanted to increase the amount of food which is distributed in consideration of the differences in the physical constitution of men and women, and we felt that it was true. In women's opinions, "restrooms”, "changing clothes" and "men-only spaces" were taken as the consideration needed for men, and in other words, it may be said that it is an expression of the women's request to divide them in men and women. Both of them think consideration for women, such as "changing clothes," "partitions," and "hygiene considerations," is necessary. This is not much different from the result of the questionnaire to women, which are "changing clothes", "menstruation", and "restrooms".
Finally, we asked what they thought were always secured in a shelter. What they answered in common was "restrooms" and "first aid goods". When we asked Mr. A, who did not choice "water" and "food" which many women answered in a survey to women, I could listen to an episode, in which there was not enough water for the amount of people in the shelter he visited as a volunteer. Also, there were answers such as "partition", "bedding", "sanitary goods", and "diapers".