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Learn from Shelters in Italy

Italy is often the case as an example of an ideal shelter operation. In Italy, the government is actively taking disaster countermeasures. How is it different from the ones in Japan?

Toilets, beds, tents arrive immediately!

In Japan, it is common to sleep crowded together, but according to Kazuhiko Kuwasawa of Niigata University, "In fact, such a shelter is only in Japan in developed countries", and "cots are always prepared in western and Western shelters.

In addition, it has become common for each family member to live in a tent." In Italy, the law states that they must prepare and provide shelters, tents, beds, temporary toilets and cafeterias within 48 hours. In Japan, the Cabinet Office's Guidelines for The Management of Shelters clearly stated the use of cots. However, the priority order at evacuation centers is lower, and according to Kazuhiko Kuwasawa, it takes "an average of more than 10 days after the disaster to be installed. " Disaster prevention agreements for the use of cots have been concluded by 31 prefectures and 300 municipalities, but actually they cannot be reached without requests from municipalities. In addition, it is difficult to install within three days at the same level as Europe and the United States in the disaster prevention agreement alone, and it takes at least seven days to make and deliver the cardboard beds after being requested.

However, if you have a cot in advance, it can be installed within three days after the disaster. In Italy, each state and disaster volunteer organization have a large public stockpile warehouse. Because of this system (tents, beds, toilets, etc.) can be installed within three days of the disaster.

Delicious meals arrive!

Next, we eat at the shelter, but in Italy, volunteer groups responsible for cooking prepare kitchen cars and provide meals in various places. They sometimes use hundreds of tents as cafeterias.

Since Japan's shelters can be opened within seven days under the Cabinet Office's "Degree, method and duration of rescue under the Disaster Relief Act, and standards for reimbursement of actual expenses," it is considered that only carbohydrates are available to avoid starvation. Bread and onigiris are the major food that are served. On the other hand, in western shelters, the importance of diet is not only nutritional intake. It is considered to be able to reassure the disaster victims by a warm and delicious meal.

Support system to the disaster area is substantial!

In Italy, there are many functional supporters who transport and distribute disaster relief supplies. A professional supporter is a general resident who takes advantage of his or her occupation to provide disaster relief, and they perform their own occupation work in the disaster area, such as a cook or a driver. They wish to implement disaster relief activities and have been registered with the government after receiving disaster response training in advance. Up to seven days of salary, transportation expenses and insurance will be guaranteed and sent to the disaster areas. The law also requires employees to send registrants to the disaster areas. Nearly 3 million professional supporters have been registered to support the disaster stricken areas.

Less burden on local governments’ employees!

In Japan, local government officials in the disaster stricken areas need to open shelters. However, in Italy, the Civil Protection Ministry and the Ministry of Protection of the government and the states determine the need for disaster assistance, and in cooperation with functional supporters, they quickly transport and distribute relief supplies to the disaster areas and set up shelters. In this way, in Italy, the disaster relief is provided, following the fact that local government officials are also victims.