Current Situation and Issues of Shelters

In this section, you can see the current situations and issues of shelters from the four perspectives.

Before the Disaster

Few female staff members are involved in disaster prevention!

Local governments have set up Regional Disaster Prevention Council to promote the preparation and implementation of regional disaster prevention plans. It is established in prefectures and municipalities and is responsible for the comprehensive coordination of disaster prevention activities conducted by local disaster prevention organizations.

Graph 1-A shows the change in the percentage of women in the member of the Local Disaster Prevention Meetings.

グラフ
Graph 1-A: "FigureI-4-5, Gender Equality Bureau, Cabinet Office"
http://www.gender.go.jp/about_danjo/whitepaper/h29/zentai/html/zuhyo/zuhyo01-04-05.html

Although both percentages in prefectures and municipalities have risen, both are still around 10 percent. In addition, about 30% of municipalities in Japan do not have any women as a member of the Local Disaster Prevention Meetings. (as of 2016)

Let's look at the case of Ina Town in Kita-Adachi District and Asaka City, Saitama Prefecture, where we (members who create this website) live. In Ina Town, out of 28 members of the Disaster Prevention Meetings, one was female, and the proportion of women was 3.6%. In Asaka City, three of the 39 members of the Disaster Prevention Meetings were women, with a percentage of them being 7.7%. It was found that the proportion of women in both municipalities was less than 10%. Considering that the percentage of women in staff is 35% in Ina Town and 41% in Asaka City, women's participation is not progressing in the field of disaster prevention plans, and it could make it difficult to reflect women's opinions in the local disaster prevention plans of many local governments.

If we go to the shelter, is there a stockpile?

Even though a local government has stockpiled emergency food, drinking water, blankets, etc., there is not necessarily a stockpile in the shelter in the event of an emergency. The reason is that the local government cannot secure or manage the stockpile in the facilities which become the shelters, and they are not stockpiled for each shelter, but are stockpiled in bulk at the city hall. Bulk stockpiles are easy to replace supplies, but in a large-scale disaster which causes a disruption of transportation routes, it is not possible to deliver supplies to shelters. According to the "Actual Survey on the Operation of Shelters, etc." published by the Cabinet Office in March 2015, nearly 30% of municipalities do not stockpile food and drinking water in facilities designated as shelters. In addition, 42% of shelters do not have stockpiles that have a view of gender equality or the person who needs consideration such as women, elderly people, patients. Consequently, we are less likely to have a stockpile when we go to a shelter.

Let’s see more in detail of the situations in some local governments. Ina Town stocks 1.5 days of food in elementary and junior high schools, contact activity centers, water purification plants, and the Social Welfare Council, and some of the stockpile locations are designated as shelters. Therefore, the distribution of stockpiles is made. In Kiyose City, Tokyo, Food enough to live for a day is stockpiled at the city hall, and apparently the dispersion is insufficient. In Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture, there are disaster prevention stockpiles near wide-area-evacuation sites to stockpile food enough to live for a day, but there is no stockpile of food in the shelter facilities. However, drinking water is not a disaster prevention stockpile warehouse, but is all stockpiled in the shelter.

Stockpile Food stockpile location Presence or absence of distributed stockpiles
Ina, Kita-Adachi District, Saitama For 1.5 days Shelters, Social Welfare Councils, etc. Presence partially
Kiyose, Tokyo For 1 day City hall Absence
Utsunomiya, Tochigi For 1 day Disaster prevention stockpile Presence partially
・"Ina Town Regional Disaster Prevention Plan" in Ina Town, Kita Adachi District, Saitama Prefecture http://www.town.saitama-ina.lg.jp/cmsfiles/contents/0000000/386/H26bousai00.pdf ・Ina Town, Kita Adachi District, Saitama Prefecture "Ina Town Regional Disaster Prevention Plan Materials Edition" http://www.town.saitama-ina.lg.jp/cmsfiles/contents/0000000/386/8.pdf ・Kiyose City, Tokyo "Kiyose City Regional Disaster Prevention Plan Earthquake Part 2 Part 11 Promotion of Stockpile and Transport measures" http://www.city.kiyose.lg.jp/s017/010/010/110/211.pdf https://www.city.utsunomiya.tochigi.jp/kurashi/anshin/bosai/1003238.html ・Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture "Disaster Prevention Measures in the City" https://www.city.utsunomiya.tochigi.jp/kurashi/anshin/bosai/1003238.html ・Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture "Utsunomiya City Regional Disaster Prevention Plan Earthquake Countermeasures"https://www.city.utsunomiya.tochigi.jp/_res/projects/default
_project/_page_/001/003/239/sinsai-yobou.pdf ・Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture "Utsunomiya City Regional Disaster Prevention Plan Materials" https://www.city.utsunomiya.tochigi.jp/_res/projects/default_project/_page_/
001/003/239/sinsai-siryouhen.pdf
Referred to the above literature and created by ourselves

Each local government procures supplies that cannot be stockpiled by local governments from distributors, but those do not reach the amount for the food necessary for three days.

Do you have stockpiles at home?

Since there is a limit to the stockpile by the administration, individual stockpile is required.

What is the level of disaster prevention measures implemented at home?

According to the "Sumisei "Disaster Prevention Survey 2019," published by Sumitomo Life Insurance Company 2019, interest in disaster prevention measures has gradually increased, while more than half people have not spent on disaster prevention measures in the last year.

Many people feel the disasters familiar and are interested in disaster prevention, because of successive earthquakes and flood damage, but on the contrary, few people actually take action.